What are the Different Types of Therapy?

When trying to find the right therapist, it is important to know the different types of therapies offered. There are four categories in which psychological therapies fall into. Here, Stuart MacFarlane, a therapist In London talks about the four categories in therapies fall.

The first category is cognitive and behavioral therapy, which is based on the way you think and behave. Behavioral or cognitive therapy works on changing or reconditioning your thoughts or behavior to overcome certain problems. Behavioral therapy can include the following:

  • ACT – acceptance and commitment therapy
  • Behavioral therapy
  • CAT – cognitive analytic therapy
  • CBT – cognitive behavioral therapy
  • Cognitive therapy

The second category is psychoanalytical and psychodynamic therapies. It is this category in which therapist Stuart MacFarlane specializes in. This type of therapy focuses on the individual’s or couples’ unconscious thoughts which have developed throughout their life and how each one of the thoughts affects them currently, both in their thoughts and behavior. Psychoanalytical therapies include:

  • Jungian therapy
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Psychoanalytical therapy
  • Psychodynamic therapy

The third type of therapy falls under humanistic therapies. According to MacFarlane, humanistic therapy is used to help the patient focus on self-development, growth and responsibilities. With this, the individual focuses on the present and their own strengths and creativeness. The following fall under the humanistic therapies umbrella:

  • Existential therapy
  • Gestalt therapy
  • Human Givens psychotherapy
  • Person, or client, centered therapy
  • Psychosynthesis
  • Reality therapy
  • Solution-focused therapy
  • Transactional analysis
  • Transpersonal psychology

The fourth and final category of therapies is arts therapy, which use creatives to help an individual. Typically, arts therapy is performed in a therapeutic environment and can include:

  • Art therapy/psychotherapy
  • Drama therapy
  • Music therapy

Stuart MacFarlane notes that just because there are these four categories, that does not mean there aren’t any other forms of therapy an individual could use. Other forms of therapy could include equine therapy, group therapy, and family therapy among others. MacFarlane also notes if you are looking to start therapy, don’t get discouraged. Therapy that works for one person in a similar situation may not work for everyone. Don’t give up and you will find a therapy that works best for you.


Anxiety or Nervousness: Which are you Experiencing?

Everyone gets anxious or nervous at times. It’s normal to feel this way before giving a speech, attending a job interview, or dealing with finances. While anxiety and nervousness are used interchangeably, they have unique differences. But how do you differentiate between the two? Renowned analytical psychologist and therapist Stuart MacFarlane explains the differences between anxiety and nervousness.


 Nervousness is an uneasy state of mind due to circumstances a person experiences. It’s a sensible reaction of arousal that occurs due to an unfamiliar situation, wherein individuals may feel hesitant or uneasy. For example, you may feel nervous when trying something new, such as skiing for the first time. These feelings are also generally representative of reactions to thoughts about what could go wrong in a situation. An individual may feel nervous taking a test which is then compounded by thinking he or she may fail.  Nervousness is something that is felt temporarily and usually goes away after a short period of time.


Anxiety is a condition in which a person feels worried, uneasy, stressed, or has a fear of something unknown. It is typically irrational, meaning when you feel it, you cannot comprehend why you’re anxious and have logical reasons why you shouldn’t feel anxious. Sufferers may make up reasons then to justify the feelings. Anxiety is a disorder and, therefore, can be diagnosed based on a number of symptoms.

Key Differences

A few key differences between anxiety and nervousness are:

Anxiety is a fear of something unknown whereas nervousness is hesitancy when trying something different.

  • Unlike nervousness, which is temporary and ends when the event is over, anxiety is felt almost every day and never really goes away.
  • Anxiety is more physical, and can sometimes lead to “panic attacks”. These attacks are intense and sudden. Individuals may experience trembling, muscle tension, cold or sweaty hands or feet, dry mouth, heart palpitation, and dizziness. Sufferers may think they are extremely ill, be having a heart attack, or even dying. No-one ever dies from a panic attack.
  • Nervousness isn’t usually so physical. You may experience a faster than normal heart rate or mild stomach discomfort, but it doesn’t affect your entire body.

How Is Depression Treated?

shutterstock_326495174Depression affects approximately 14.8 million American adults in any given year according to the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. On top of that, as many as 1 in 33 children and 1 in 8 adolescents have clinical depression. With those statistics in mind, it’s no doubt that depression is a serious mental illness that affects millions of people, regardless of age, race and sex. The onset of depression can be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain or experiencing a stressful life event, like losing a loved one, going through a break up or even losing a job.

The mood disorder causes persistent feelings of sadness and the loss of interest in things the individual once enjoyed like hobbies and social outings. It can lead to a wide range of emotional and physical conditions that can include sleep problems, inability to concentrate on tasks, changes in appetite and feelings of fatigue to name a few. Even though depression can drastically affect an individual, it can be treated in a variety of ways. In fact, experienced analytical psychologists and therapists like Stuart MacFarlane has use the following methods to help patients overcome depression.


Psychotherapy is often referred as ‘talk therapy’ and it’s an effective treatment for clinical depression. The psychotherapist focuses on how your thoughts and behaviors contribute to your depression. They provide you with an environment where you can openly discuss your problems and they provide you with coping methods to help overcome those issues. A psychotherapist will help you change some of those unhealthy patterns so you can be on the road to recovery.


Another way psychotherapists treat depression is by instructing their patients to exercise. Exercising helps the body naturally release feel-good chemicals that can boost your mood and reduce your depression symptoms. Not only does exercise boost serotonin, endorphins and other feel-good chemicals, but it triggers the growth of new brain cells and connections, which is what anti-depressants do. On top of that, exercising for 30 to 60 minutes on most days can be just enough to provide maximum benefit.


Medication is another key treatment for depression but it may take some time to find the right anti-depressant. Doctors may prescribe different dosages or completely different brands of medication based on your specific symptoms. There are a number of different anti-depressants on the market but your doctor will adjust your specific medication based on your feedback from the medicine.

While these are the three main ways to treat depression, there are a few other ways that can help manage and alleviate symptoms like lifestyle changes, natural supplements and electroconvulsive therapy to name a few.

About Stuart MacFarlane Therapist

Stuart MacFarlane is a seasoned therapist with well over 30 years of experience in the field of psychology. He specializes in the treatment of psychological dilemmas and disorders that include depression, bipolar disorder, bereavement, anxiety, addiction and relationship counseling. He uses an Jungian approach during patient sessions, as he analytical psychotherapist. With that said, let’s learn more about the therapist Stuart MacFarlane!

Educational Starting Point

MacFarlane is originally from Sydney, Australia, and began his career in the early 1970s when he left his home to study in Rishikesh, India at the Yoga-Vedanta Forest University. During his time at the university, MacFarlane studied philosophy and Advaita Vedanta, which is one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization. Upon completion of his studies, he returned to Australia with the inspiration of becoming a bereavement counselor and psychotherapist, where he could integrate what he learned in India into his therapy sessions.

He started to training with Ken Mellow in Transactional Analysis and Gestalt therapy, with a particular focus on groups – group and family dynamics specifically. Following his training, MacFarlane began working in private practice in 1984 initially as a bereavement counsellor and subsequently a psychotherapist. At the same time, he was attending the University of Western Sydney part time for 2 years and received a Graduate Diploma in Social Communication in 1985.

MacFarlane undertook further training with Elisabeth Kubler-Ross M.D., who was a Swiss-American psychiatrist that was the pioneer of the five stages of grief theory. He became the head of her organization in Australia and worked directly with her and her team of facilitators for workshops in Australia, New Zealand and the United States.

While training and working with Kubler-Ross, MacFarlane was eventually introduced to Gregg M. Furth, an internationally recognized Jungian Analyst. It was at this introduction where MacFarlane would begin paving his way towards training in analytical psychology. He started to work with Furth, initially organizing his workshop tours throughout Australia and New Zealand, and later becoming highly intrigued and interested in the practice of Jungian analysis.

The Move To England

Throughout all his years of formal training, MacFarlane continued to provide psychotherapy services in private practice in Australia until 1998 when he decided to move to London, England to undertake formal training of analytical psychology at The Guild Of Analytical Psychology (GAP). Upon moving to London and studying at GAP, he began working in private practice again to provide psychotherapy and analytical analysis from 2001 to 2008. During this time, MacFarlane also was very involved in the organizational side of GAP and provided training to GAP students facilitated many workshops until he resigned from GAP in 2014.

MacFarlane continues to reside in London and is still very involved in the field of psychology.